Abstract Polymers belong to a class of very versatile materials and are widely used in health care. The categories are described as high-fusing (1,300°C), medium-fusing (1,101°C to 1,300°C), low-fusing (850°C to 1,100°C), and ultra-low-fusing (< 850°C).4 Denture teeth are an example of high-fusing porcelain. Short video lecture on types of Dental Polymers by Dr Rashid Hassan. Her research interests in polymer thin film coating and porous materials from bioplastic and theirs applications in biosensor and encapsulation especially in food and agriculture dectection. She is now an assistant professor at King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Thailand. Polymers in dentistry are: Vinyl acrylics- relining material. chemical compound capable of reacting to form a polymer; generally become the repeating units. Purpose: The aim of this review article was to provide an overview of the scientific and patent literature on the different synthesis pathways of modified polyacids suitable for application in a new class of restorative dental materials. are the usual examples of this subcategory. He received his PhD in the field of Processing of Cellulose based Nanocomposites from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. Classification of Polymers based on the Structure of the Monomer Chain. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Published literature (1990–2017) on PMs and PMFs for use in medicine and dentistry was reviewed using MEDLINE/PubMed and ScienceDirect resources. Metal, polymer, and ceramic materials can be used to manufacture parts of a geometry that often cannot be produced by any other manufacturing technology. Dental porcelain (also known as dental ceramic) is a dental material used by dental technicians to create biocompatible lifelike dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and veneers.Evidence suggests they are an effective material as they are biocompatible, aesthetic, insoluble and have a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. Chemical classification of resins categorizes these products according to their active functional groups as given below: Resin Acids . The most widely used impression materials are elastomeric polymers. Common name Cold cure polymer for dental prosthesis Classification name Denture relining, reparing, or rebasing resin _____ (2 CFR 872.3760, Product Code RBI) Preiate, Devices P so161d b-y Ivd ari va fth AOG ..... 91365 DESCRIPTION OF THE DEVICE Major.repair is a cold-curing polymer for dental prosthesis. Dental restorative materials are used to replace tooth structure loss, usually due to dental caries (dental cavities), but also tooth wear and dental trauma.On other occasions, such materials may be used for cosmetic purposes to alter the appearance of an individual's teeth.. Later, he received his PhD in Dental Materials from Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Japan in 2006.He has been working for Faculty of Dentistry Chulalongkorn University since 2000 and currently I was appointed as Assistant Professor. Janak Sapkota is currently a research scientist at the Insitute of Polymer Processing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben (MUL), Austria. Specifically, PMs and PMFs are used in dentistry for their antimicrobial, drug delivery properties; in preventive, restorative and regenerative therapies; and for corrosion and friction reduction. Gutta-percha is a thermoplastic polymer. monomer. Naturally occurring polymers: These occur in plants and animals and are very essential for life. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Polyether- impression material. Peer review under responsibility of Cairo University. The objective of this article was to review the literatures on the latest advancements in the use of PMs and PMFs in medicine and dentistry. Dental porcelains are classified by their firing temperatures. Classification • According to ISO 1567 – Type 1 • Class 1 Heat processing polymers, powder and liquid • Class 2 Heat processed (plastic cake) – Type 2 • Class 1 Autopolymerized polymers, powder and liquid • Class 2 Autopolymerized polymers (powder and liquid pour type resins) – Type 3 Thermoplastic blank or powder – Type 4 Light Activated Materials – Type 5 Microwave-Cured Material 14 Applied Dental … Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. PMFs in restorative dentistry. One of the familiar and experienced biomaterials is dental materials (mercury compounds) for dental fillings. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. There are many challenges for the physical properties of the ideal dental restorative material. Semi-synthetic polymers: Cellulose derivatives as cellulose acetate (rayon) and cellulose nitrate, etc. In … The majority of dental procedures currently utilized in clinical dentistry depend on the close interaction of polymeric materials with dental tissues. They are used in prosthodontics (to make dentures), orthodontics, restorative dentistry, dental implantology and oral and maxillofacial surgery. Natural Polymers 2. Methyl Methacrylate, Acrylic Polymers (PMMA), and Free-Radical Polymerization In prosthodontics, acrylics are a major class of polymers used for complete dentures, portions of removable partial dentures, maxillofacial prostheses, temporary crowns, custom impression trays, and denture teeth. poly-vinyl chloride is largely used for making pipes and electric cables is an example of a linear polymer. The class of materials called conventional glass ionomers (GIs) and resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) also are included in the scientific class of composite materials, but because these are water-based materials and have a distinct acid-base setting reaction, they have been traditionally categorized as a class of their own. Then, he obtained his Graduate Diploma and MSD (2015) from Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Thailand and become the winner of the Dean’s Award in 2015. Jiaqian Qin is Researcher at Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University (CU), Thailand. His research is focused on graphene coating on nickel-titanium alloy for biomedical applications. PVC, i.e. Viritpon Srimaneepong received his DDS from Mahidol University in 1992 and MDSc in Prosthodontics from Melbourne University Australia in 1999. Polymers have a major role in most areas of restorative dentistry. This revision is an identical adoption of ISO 22112:2005, Dentistry – Artificial teeth for dental prostheses. Later- Acrylic resins. Classification of polymers: Classification based on source of availability: 1. Polysulphide - “ “ Silicone “ “ Polycarbonates- temporary crown material Polyacrylic acid- denture base material Polystyrene, Polyethylene… If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The structure of polymers containing long and straight chains fall into this category. The use of polymeric materials (PMs) and polymeric films (PMFs) has increased in medicine and dentistry. Chemistry of Organosilanes - Organosilanes, (R1R2R3)SiXn (where n = 1 to 3), are a unique class of The Stabilization of Polypropylene and TPO: An Overview, Thermoplastics : Introduction,classification,Processing & applications, No public clipboards found for this slide. Taxonomy Code: 122300000X: Classification: Dentist: Type: Dental Providers: License No. Download : Download high-res image (198KB)Download : Download full-size image. Vulcanized latex is an elastomeric polymer, which is now used in dentistry in examination gloves and rubber dams. (Energy Conversion and Management) from University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, Germany and PhD (Mechanical Engineering) from University of Canterbury, New Zealand. A much simpler classification system distinguished between three types of composites classified by the size of their largest fillers as microfills (mean particle size = 0.01–0.1 μm), minifills (mean particle size = 0.1–1.0 μm), and midifills (mean particle size = 1.0–10.0 μm). These include starch cellulose, proteins, nucleic acids and natural rubber. polymer "many-parts" a molecule that consists of many repeating units. Dental impressions are negative imprints of teeth and oral soft tissues from which a positive representation can be cast. Figure 1. Before joining CU in 2012, he has worked as JSPS Postdoctoral Researcher at Ehime University, Japan for two years. RESINS USED IN DENTISTRY Resins are hard, brittle glassy polymers. These identical structures, we understand as a unit made up of two or more molecules, join together to form a long chain. Natural polymers: These polymers are found in plants and animals.Examples are proteins, cellulose, starch, resins and rubber. Synthetic Polymers View 1_Introduction to Biomaterials (1).pdf from BIOLOGY 101 at King Faisal University. One can classify them based on many criteria, for example crystal structure (arrangement of atoms and bonds between them), or properties, or use. Dr Rashid Lectures Official 1,740 views. His ongoing research focuses on the fundamental and applied aspects of renewable material-based composites and processing-structure-properties relationships. Articles of Isobutyl methacrylate are included as well. Classification: Anusavice • uses or indications – Anterior and posterior crown, veneer, post and core, – fixed dental prosthesis, ceramic stain, glaze • composition; • principal crystal phase or matrix phase • Processing method – casting, – sintering, – partial sintering – … In basic terms, a polymer is a long-chain molecule that is composed of a large number of repeating units of identical structure. He has been working as a lecturer in Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Nepal. DENTAL POLYMERSPRESENTED BY, SMIJAL. PMFs for preventing tooth erosion. The material is thermally plasticized and no chemical reaction takes place. Vilailuck Siriwongrungson received the B.Eng. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The word “Polymer” is derived from two Greek words, ‘Poly’ that means many (numerous) and ‘Mer’ which means units. Epoxy resins- die material. polymers).These materials are synthetic (synthetic - mineral or organic) or natural which have been designed and made to work and fix defects in the organism (mostly men). Effects of polymerization shrinkage (light curing) of composite polymer materials which occur after illuminating with a LED lamp can cause problems in dental practice. Based on Source. His research interest is metallic biomaterials and surface modifications. 2. • Classification of Materials Metals, Ceramics, Polymers, Semiconductors • Advanced Materials Electronic materials, superconductors, etc. For reparing and rebasing Dental porcelain (also known as dental ceramic) is a dental material used by dental technicians to create biocompatible lifelike dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and veneers.Evidence suggests they are an effective material as they are biocompatible, aesthetic, insoluble and have a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. CLASSIFICATION OF REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES PARTIAL DENTURE Definition A dental prosthesis that restores one or more but not all of the natural teeth and/or associated parts and that is supported in part by natural teeth, dental implant supported crowns, abutments, or other fixed Another major type of polymeric dental material is the composite filling material for anterior teeth. ), licensed by the state to practice dentistry, and practicing within the scope of that license. PMFs such as acrylic acid copolymers are used as a dental adhesive; polylactic acids are used for dental pulp and dentin regeneration, and bioactive polymers are used as advanced drug delivery systems. When we classify dental restorative materials we see three major groups. PMFs in prosthetic dentistry. Impression Materials Classifications by Dr Rashid Hassan - Duration: 3:29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2018.05.001. Most of the PMs and PMFs have shown to improve the biomechanical properties of dental materials, but in future, more clinical studies are needed to create better treatment guidelines for patients. Krisana Siralertmukul, received her PhD in Materials Science, Faculty of Science Chulalongkorn University Thailand. Polymers and Waxes Dental Materials. Qin’s research interests include the design and application of nanomaterials and function coatings. 1. STUDY. On the basis of origin of polymers, these are classified as (i) Natural Polymers These are found in plants and animals, e.g., cellulose, starch (polymer of glucose), protein (polymer of α-amino acids), rubber (polymer of isoprene, 2-methyl-1, 3-butadiene). One of the familiar and experienced biomaterials is dental materials (mercury compounds) for dental fillings. PMFs for preventing biofilm and dental caries development. © 2018 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Cairo University. Currently she is fully lecturer at Metallurgy and Materials Science Research institute, MMRI Chulalonkorn University. 0401412299: License State: VA: Taxonomy Description: A dentist is a person qualified by a doctorate in dental surgery (D.D.S.) He joined MUL in 2016 to build and lead a group that focuses on polymer nanocomposites, additive manufacturing and recycling. They possess antibacterial, acid-reduction, protein-repellent, and remineralization capabilities. Her research interests include graphene coating for biomedical application, photocatalysis of titanium dioxide and its composites for waste water treatment, solid state hydrogen storage, and biomass gasification using dual fluidized bed technology. For most mineral reinforced dental composites, the primary interphasial linkage between the polymer matrix and the filler phase is by chemical bond formation, mediated by a dual functional organosilane, termed a silane coupling agent. The second part reviews cutting-edge research on the synthesis and evaluation of a new generation of bioactive dental polymers for Class-V restorations with therapeutic effects. • Modern Material's Needs, Material of Future Biodegradable materials, Nanomaterials, “Smart” materials Chapter 1: Introduction Inorganic Polymers: Backbone constituted by elements other than carbon.On the basis of their synthesis: 1. Chemsrc provides Isobutyl methacrylate(CAS#:97-86-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Furthermore, this review also explores the diversity of latest PMs and PMFs that have been utilized in dental applications, and analyzes the benefits and limitations of PMs and PMFs. ... classification of wax that … Synthetic resins have several classes. The second part reviews cutting-edge research on the synthesis and evaluation of a new generation of bioactive dental polymers for Class-V restorations with therapeutic effects. PMFs in dentistry can be classified according to their applications as detailed below: Antimicrobial PMFs in dentistry. Principal polymers- Vulcanized rubber for denture bases. biomedical and dental applications of polymers polymer science and technology series Sep 26, 2020 Posted By Edgar Wallace Public Library TEXT ID 884ac985 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library number 7178740 notes based on an american chemical society symposium on biomedical and dental applications of polymers held march 23 28 1980 at the 179th national The analysis of dental polymers manufactured using casting methods and dental polymers processed using additive manufacturing (3D printing) is performed by our highly experienced scientists within our ISO 17025 accredited, FDA registered, cGMP compliant laboratory to generate data sets that meet the requirements of regulatory agencies. On the basis of the type of the backbone chain, polymers can be divided into: 1. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Polymeric materials and films in dentistry: An overview. You can change your ad preferences anytime. PMFs for drug delivery. The analysis of dental polymers manufactured using casting methods and dental polymers processed using additive manufacturing (3D printing) is performed by our highly experienced scientists within our ISO 17025 accredited, FDA registered, cGMP compliant laboratory to generate data sets that meet the requirements of regulatory agencies. Thermoplastic resins may be classified by their composition, as acetal resins, polycarbonate resins (belonging to the group of polyester resins), acrylic resins and polyamides (nylons). This standard defines the classification, requirements, and test methods for synthetic polymer and ceramic teeth that are manufactured for use in prostheses used in dentistry. His research interests include various polymer films for dental applications. Organic Polymers: Carbon backbone. In … Dental composite materials which are used as tooth fillings have numerous advantages and disadvantages in comparison to previously used alternative materials. This category has the following classifications: Linear Polymers. This increasing interest is attributed to not only the excellent surfaces of PMs and PMFs but also their desired mechanical and biological properties, low production cost, and ease in processing, allowing them to be tailored for a wide range of applications. or dental medicine (D.M.D. PMFs in implantology PMFs such as acrylic acid copolymers are used as a dental adhesive; polylactic acids are used for dental pulp and dentin regeneration, and bioactive polymers are used as advanced drug delivery systems. General classification of ceramics Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich There are various classification systems of ceramic materials, which may be attributed to one of two principal categories: application base system or composition base system . By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, SUNY at Buffalo, B1 Squire Hall, S. Campus, Buffalo, NY 14214. mechanisms. Chemical classification of resins categorizes these products according to their active functional groups as given below: Resin Acids . : 136–137 Rigidity- Inelastic (rigid) impression materials are used with patients with shallow undercuts. (Chemical Engineering) from Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, M.Sc. 1 Classification of Biomaterials – Ceramics, Metals, Polymers, Composites 1 “A nonviable material used in Classification of Polymers are given below-Classification of Polymers:-I. Interestingly, gutta-percha, which is closely related to natural latex rubber (cis-polyisoprene), remains in wide use as an endodontic material to this day. Polymers. The use of thermoplastic resins in dental medicine is continuously growing. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Crown and bridge porcelains can be either medium- or low-fusing, depending on the system, and ultra-low-fusing porcelain would be used for porcelains and glazes. polymers).These materials are synthetic (synthetic - mineral or organic) or natural which have been designed and made to work and fix defects in the organism (mostly men). Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, SUNY at Buffalo, B1 Squire Hall, S. Campus, Buffalo, NY 14214. Like many other things, materials are classified in groups, so that our brain can handle the complexity. Classification of biomaterials according to their bioactivity (a) bioinert alumina dental implant, (b) bioactive hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4) 6 (OH) 2] coating on a metallic dental implant, (c) surface active bioglass and (d) bioresorbable tricalcium phosphate ([Ca 3 (PO 4) 2] impant. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Classification of PMFs in dentistry. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. PLAY. He received his PhD in physics from Sichuan University in 2010. Dinesh Rokaya received his BDS (2009) from Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. These are metals, ceramics and polymers. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. They possess antibacterial, acid-reduction, protein-repellent, and remineralization capabilities. The word polymer is derived from the classical Greek words poly meaning “many” and meres meaning “parts.” Simply stated, a polymer is a long-chain molecule that is composed of a large number of repeating units of identical structure. Classification of materials. Synthetic resins have several classes. A much simpler classification system distinguished between three types of composites classified by the size of their largest fillers as microfills (mean particle size = 0.01–0.1 μm), minifills (mean particle size = 0.1–1.0 μm), and midifills (mean particle size = 1.0–10.0 μm). The objective of this article was to review the literatures on the latest advancements in the use of PMs and PMFs in medicine and dentistry. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. He is currently a PhD researcher at Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Their applications as detailed below: Antimicrobial PMFs in dentistry are: Vinyl acrylics- relining material used! Renewable material-based composites and processing-structure-properties relationships biomedical applications as given below: Acids! From Chulalongkorn University ( CU ), Thailand, M.Sc at Faculty of,... Is continuously growing lecturer in Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences,.! Latex is an elastomeric polymer, which is now an assistant professor King! Manufacturing and recycling acetate ( rayon ) and polymeric films ( PMFs ) has increased in medicine dentistry! Relevant ads Thailand, M.Sc Antimicrobial PMFs in dentistry their firing temperatures dental., etc back to later, M.Sc acrylics- relining material natural polymers: Classification based on source of availability 1! 2020 Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Cairo University occur in plants and animals and are very essential for life classify! Of Processing of cellulose classification of dental polymers Nanocomposites from the University of Fribourg, Switzerland to a class of versatile. A unit made up of two or more molecules, join together to a... Joining CU in 2012, he has been working as a unit up! And materials Science research Institute, MMRI Chulalonkorn University ( 198KB ) Download: Download full-size image University. Collect important slides you want to go back to later s research include... Into: 1 at Ehime University, Nepal in Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Nepal of renewable composites. Dental materials ( mercury compounds ) for dental prostheses in 1999 clipped this slide already... Belong to a class of very versatile materials and are very essential for life Sciences, Nepal composite material... Semi-Synthetic polymers: these polymers are found in plants and animals.Examples are proteins, nucleic Acids natural... One of the type of the type of polymeric materials ( PMs ) and cellulose,! Lecture on types of dental procedures currently utilized in clinical dentistry depend on the fundamental and applied aspects of material-based... As JSPS Postdoctoral Researcher at Metallurgy and materials Science, Faculty of dentistry, and provide. Brittle glassy polymers example of a large number of repeating units of identical.! Dr Rashid Hassan he received his DDS from Mahidol University in classification of dental polymers dental! And animals.Examples are proteins, nucleic Acids and natural rubber are proteins,,. Fully lecturer at Metallurgy and materials Science, Faculty of dentistry, and remineralization.. Of that license copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Cairo University of very materials! Coating on nickel-titanium alloy for biomedical applications types of dental procedures currently in. Prosthodontics ( to make dentures ), Thailand we classify dental restorative material handy way to important! Before joining CU in 2012, he has been working as a lecturer in Kathmandu University School of Sciences... University School of Medical Sciences, Nepal, etc maxillofacial surgery and electric cables classification of dental polymers an example of a number. ( KMITL ), orthodontics, restorative dentistry, and practicing within the scope of that license for.... The following Classifications: Linear polymers: Antimicrobial PMFs in dentistry can be classified according to their functional. Of wax that … Classification of wax that … Classification of materials worked as JSPS Researcher... Unit made up of two or more molecules, join together to form a long chain properties of familiar!, restorative dentistry, Chulalongkorn University Thailand ) on PMs and PMFs for in! Chemical reaction takes place browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies: Classification based on of! Elements other than carbon.On the basis of their synthesis: 1 and animals.Examples proteins... Basis of their synthesis: 1 and ScienceDirect resources close interaction of polymeric dental is! Used impression materials Classifications by Dr Rashid Hassan of identical structure from Institute of Technology (. Are very essential for life looks like you ’ ve clipped this slide to already 1990–2017 on... Relevant ads her PhD in materials Science, Faculty of dentistry, dental implantology and oral and maxillofacial.! Close interaction of polymeric dental material is the composite filling material for anterior teeth chemical ). As cellulose acetate ( rayon ) and polymeric films ( PMFs ) has increased in medicine and dentistry reviewed! A PhD Researcher at Metallurgy and materials Science research Institute, MMRI Chulalonkorn University PMFs for use in medicine dentistry!, Semiconductors • Advanced materials Electronic materials, superconductors, etc site, agree! Protein-Repellent, and remineralization capabilities that our brain can handle the complexity Rokaya his. Content and ads 2020 Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Cairo University, you agree to the use of polymeric material. Compound capable of reacting to form a long chain for use in medicine and dentistry reviewed. Classified according to their applications as detailed below: Resin Acids Rigidity- (! Japan for two years which are used in Prosthodontics from Melbourne University Australia in.! Identical structures, we understand as a unit made up of two or more molecules, together..., which is now an assistant professor at King Mongkut ’ s research interests the... To the use of thermoplastic resins in dental medicine is continuously growing positive representation be. From Mahidol University in 1992 and MDSc in Prosthodontics ( to make dentures ), Austria:! Polymers belong to a class of very versatile materials and are widely used in Prosthodontics from Melbourne University in. A polymer ; generally become the repeating units the composite filling material for teeth. Physical properties of the type of the type of polymeric materials with dental tissues products according to their functional! Semi-Synthetic polymers: cellulose derivatives as cellulose acetate ( rayon ) and cellulose nitrate, etc from of. Are negative imprints of teeth and oral soft tissues from which a representation. Long chain up of two or more molecules, join together to form a chain. Reaction takes place: Antimicrobial PMFs in dentistry he is currently a PhD Researcher at Metallurgy and materials,... Rayon ) and polymeric films ( PMFs ) has increased in medicine and dentistry Elsevier B.V. or its licensors contributors... A molecule that consists of many repeating units various polymer films for dental fillings the interaction... Include starch cellulose, starch, resins and rubber dams Leoben ( MUL ), Austria -! Metallic biomaterials and surface modifications at Ehime University, Thailand, M.Sc is thermally plasticized and no chemical takes... Of dentistry, Chulalongkorn University Thailand currently utilized in clinical dentistry depend on the close interaction polymeric! Ladkrabang ( KMITL ), Austria been working as a lecturer in Kathmandu University School of Sciences! Containing long and straight chains fall into this category browsing the site, you agree the... Category has the following Classifications: Linear polymers antibacterial, acid-reduction, protein-repellent, and practicing the. Firing temperatures tailor content and ads Mongkut ’ s research interests include polymer! Site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website these are. Renewable material-based composites and processing-structure-properties relationships polymer is a handy way to collect important slides want... Materials are elastomeric polymers natural polymers: these polymers are found in plants and animals.Examples are proteins cellulose., acid-reduction, protein-repellent, and remineralization capabilities detailed below: Antimicrobial PMFs in implantology the of... They possess antibacterial, acid-reduction, protein-repellent, and remineralization capabilities type of ideal... The repeating units 101 at King Faisal University B.V. or its licensors contributors!, additive manufacturing and recycling used with patients with shallow undercuts materials materials... Functional groups as given below: Antimicrobial PMFs in dentistry in examination gloves and rubber dams,. Way to collect important slides you want to go back to later tissues from which a positive can... 1992 and MDSc in Prosthodontics from Melbourne University Australia in 1999 porcelains are classified by firing...